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'A Community Of Desperation' Finding Sympathy And Solidarity In Dorothea Lange

Apr 30, 2020
Originally published on April 30, 2020 8:56 pm

The U.S. government paid Dorothea Lange to take photographs.

She's best known for her work with such federal programs as the Farm Security Administration, where she documented the painful economic and environmental crises of the 1930s and '40s across the American West. Across her body of work there are intimate glimpses of Great Depression bread lines, Japanese American internment camps during World War II and migrant farm workers — including the subject of perhaps her most famous portrait, Migrant Mother.

But she also took notes — lots and lots of notes, scribbling constantly as she worked: recording how her subjects spoke, what they were doing to get by, why their lives took shape as they did.

"I went out just absolutely in the blind staggering, as something to do," Lange herself said in interviews conducted over 1960 and '61 and preserved by the University of California, Berkeley's Oral History Center. "Well, I really kept to it."

Those notes helped inspire a retrospective of Lange's work at New York City's Museum of Modern Art, which opened in mid-February ... and promptly closed less than a month later because of a different kind of crisis, the coronavirus pandemic.

NOTE TO SELF: Possible title, 'To Hold This Soil' ... NOTE TO SELF: General Theme of Book, 'People left stranded by the outwash of industry in America' ... NOTE TO SELF: US-99: The Splendor & the Rest of It ... Note: young trees ... Note: poor man's canyon. A subject on the move ... NOTE TO SELF: Really do the work, Follow the whole travel, destination unknown. - Tess Taylor, reading excerpts from Dorothea Lange's journals

"The installation views are there. The pictures are hanging in the dark," says Sarah Meister, the exhibition's curator. "And now it's like, 'OK, so then what?' "

So, Meister and her colleagues decided to relaunch the exhibition as a weeklong, entirely online experience — including views of the installation, a live Q&A and some added video and podcast segments. That project, which goes live Thursday, also offered an opportunity to reframe some of Lange's work in light of the tumult caused by the pandemic.

She points to one piece, in particular.

"Her photograph from 1938 about unemployment aid beginning. It's this line of men in hats standing very close together. It's just this very self-enclosed, sad, desperate plodding, hopeless kind of picture," she recalls.

The echoes with today's desperate unemployment landscape are inescapable. More than 30 million people — or 1 out of every 5 people who had a job in February — have filed for unemployment in the past six weeks alone, as the coronavirus and widespread lockdown efforts take their toll. The U.S. economy may see its sharpest economic downturn since Lange's own day, during the Great Depression.

But in a weird way, Meister adds, looking at Lange's work also offers a sense of solidarity across time: "You know, even a community of desperation is still a community."

Tess Taylor certainly feels that connection. The poet — and occasional NPR contributor — composed a book of poetry inspired by Lange's work, Last West, some of which was included in the MoMA exhibition. Taylor traveled throughout California, following some of Lange's own travels, and says something unmistakable still shines through the photographs.

"There's a restless desire to find a way to document the scope of this crisis — but also to make it feel human, and to capture it at a human scale," Taylor says.

That poses some difficult questions to Lange's viewers.

"What do we owe one another as a form of common dignity? How do we support one another? How is our well-being intimately welded to one another's well-being?" Taylor asks. "Those are her questions, and they're also questions that we are feeling very, very sharply right now."

Dorothea Lange, Migratory Cotton Picker, Eloy, Arizona (1940). During many of Lange's portraits she would talk for a while with her subjects, recording their speech patterns and getting to know their perspectives on life.
Dorothea Lange / Courtesy of the Museum of Modern Art, New York

She says the photographer keeps coming to mind as she looks around her neighborhood, not too far from where Lange lived in the San Francisco Bay area. And as Taylor sees the melancholy menagerie of signs hanging outside her local stores — "Closed, reopening shortly, we're gone now ... [and] one store that says, 'We'll be back tomorrow,' but it's had that sign up for six weeks" — Taylor often gets out her own notebook. Since the photographer's not here to do it, the poet is taking notes for her.

Taylor doesn't know what she will do with that list yet. Then again, rarely did Lange, when she was just starting a project. It was advice she offered to young photographers.

"Don't let that question stop you," Lange explained in those early 1960s interviews. "Ways often open that are unpredictable if you pursue it far enough."

In other words, just keep your eyes and your heart open. Your notebook, too.

Copyright 2020 NPR. To see more, visit https://www.npr.org.

MARY LOUISE KELLY, HOST:

Photographer Dorothea Lange had an eye for capturing what was going on around her - the Great Depression, Japanese American internment camps during World War II. Her most famous portrait is of a migrant mother, her face lined with worry. In February, a retrospective of Lange's work opened at New York City's Museum of Modern Art and promptly closed a month later because of the coronavirus. As NPR's Colin Dwyer reports, the exhibition is reopening for one week only, today, online.

COLIN DWYER, BYLINE: Dorothea Lange's work for the U.S. government took her to Great Depression bread lines and camps of migrant farmworkers. In interviews conducted over 1960 and '61 and preserved by the University of California Berkeley's Oral History Center, Lange said that she didn't set out with much more than her camera.

(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING)

DOROTHEA LANGE: I just went out just absolutely in the blind, staggering, as something to do. Well, I really kept to it.

DWYER: But she didn't just take pictures; she took notes - lots and lots of notes. Here's Tess Taylor, a poet and occasional NPR contributor reading just a few items from Lange's copious notebooks.

TESS TAYLOR, BYLINE: (Reading) Note to self - possible title, to hold this soil. Note to self - general theme of book, people left stranded by the outwash of industry in America. Note to self - US-99, the splendor and the rest of it.

DWYER: Taylor wrote a book of poems inspired by Lange, some of which were included in the MOMA exhibition. Taylor traveled throughout California, following Lange's path, and says that something unmistakable still shines through in her photographs.

TAYLOR: The restless desire to find a way to document the scope of this crisis but also to make it feel human and to capture it at a human scale.

DWYER: Decades later, a different kind of crisis intruded.

SARAH MEISTER: The installation views are there. The pictures are hanging in the dark. And now it's like, OK, so then what?

DWYER: Sarah Meister is the curator behind the MOMA exhibition. Since the museum is closed indefinitely, she and her colleagues decided to relaunch the exhibition online. And that gave them a chance to reframe Lange's work in light of today's crisis. She points to one piece in particular.

MEISTER: Her photograph from 1938 about unemployment aid beginning - and it's this line of men in hats standing very close together. It's just this very self-enclosed, sad, desperate, plodding, hopeless kind of picture.

DWYER: The echo with today's unemployment figures is inescapable. But in a weird way, it also offers a sense of solidarity across time.

MEISTER: You know, even a community of desperation is still a community.

DWYER: It also communicates some difficult questions.

TAYLOR: What do we owe one another as a form of common dignity? How do we support one another? How is our well-being intimately welded to one another's well-being?

DWYER: That's Tess Taylor again, the poet inspired by Lange's work.

TAYLOR: Those are her questions, and they're also questions that we are feeling very, very sharply right now.

DWYER: Lange's pictures come to mind when Taylor sees the signs now hanging outside the stores in her neighborhood, not too far from where Dorothea Lange herself once lived. And since the photographer is not here to do it, the poet is taking notes for her.

TAYLOR: Closed. Reopening shortly. We're gone now. On intermission. There's one store that says we'll be back tomorrow, but it's had that sign up for six weeks.

DWYER: Taylor doesn't know what she'll do with that list yet; then again, rarely did Lange when she was just starting a project. It was advice she offered young photographers.

(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING)

LANGE: Don't let that question stop you.

DWYER: Here's Dorothea Lange again from those early '60s interviews.

(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING)

LANGE: Ways often open that are unpredictable if you pursue it far enough.

DWYER: In other words, just keep your eyes and your heart open - your notebook, too.

Colin Dwyer, NPR News.

(SOUNDBITE OF BLANK AND JONES' "ISLAND TRIP") Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.